Countries colored in brown have both a highly competitive economy and a flexible policy on human embryonic stem cell research. Countries in brown and their rank by the Global Competitiveness Index 2004-2005 (top 30 countries):
Finland - 1
Sweden - 3
Taiwan - 4
Denmark - 5
Singapore - 7
Switzerland - 8
Japan - 9
Iceland - 10
United Kingdom - 11
The Netherlands - 12
Australia - 14
Canada - 15
New Zealand - 18
Israel - 19
Estonia - 20
Hong Kong - 21
Spain - 23
Belgium - 25
France - 27
Korea - 29
- Map is designed to reflect national policy and whether or not public funds may be used to pursue stem cell research using IVF embryos donated from fertility clinics.
- By "flexible" is meant that embryonic stem cell derivations from fertility clinic donations are permitted by law. [Option 3 in Walters, LeRoy, in References, below: "Research is permitted only on remaining embryos no longer needed for reproduction."] See also Walters, LeRoy, National Academy of Sciences, Oct. 12, 2004, in References.
- California in the U.S. supports embryonic stem cell research through Proposition 71, a $3 billion bonding initiative that is projected to provide about $300 million in stem cell research funding annually for 10 years. Approved by California voters Nov. 2, 2004, Proposition 71 establishes a state constitutional right to pursue stem cell research, including through SCNT or research/therapeutic cloning, and prohibits funding of human reproductive cloning research.
- The black dots show the locations of some of the leading genome sequencing research centers. Most U.S. centers are those that have been involved in the Human Genome Project. The genome sequencing centers are meant to indicate the level of scientific infrastructure and not whether stem cell genomic studies are being conducted at a given center. The dots are linked to center web sites.
- Executive Summary, Global Competitiveness Report 2004-2005, World Economic Forum.
- Walters, LeRoy. "Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (1): 3-38, 2004.
- Walters, LeRoy. "Public Policies on Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective." National Academy of Sciences, 9 am., Oct. 12, 2004.
- Australia. "Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002."
- Canada. Health Canada Online: Research involving the in vitro embryo.
- International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR). Stem Cell Research Regulations in the European Union
- Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities Bioethics Advisory Committee, "The use of Embryonic Stem Cells for Therapeutic Research," August 2001.
- Japan. Minister of Education and Science, Guidelines to the "Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques," [PDF] December 4, 2001. The Council for Science and Technology Policy, chaired by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, issued its approval of cloning human
embryos for basic research, based on recommendations by a subpanel on bioethics in its final report, July 13, 2004. (Foreign Press Center report)
- The Netherlands. Bill containing rules relating to the use of gametes and embryos (Embryos Bill), Parliamentary Documents II, 2000/01, 27 423, nos. 1-2.
- New Zealand. "Human Assisted Reproduction Technology (HART) Bill," 5 Aug 2004. (PDF file) The HART Bill was supported 102-18 in a third-reading Parliamentary vote November 10, 2004.
- Singapore, Parliament of Singapore, "Human Cloning and Other Prohibited Practices Bill," bill no. 34/2004, first read 20 July 2004. (PDF file)
- Republic of South Korea, "Life Ethics Law," January 29, 2004.
- Spain. Boletín Oficial del Estado: LEY 45/2003, de 21 de noviembre, por la que se modifica la Ley 35/1988, de 22 de noviembre, sobre Técnicas de Reproducción Asistida. [En relación a las células troncales embrionarias] (PDF file)
- Sweden. Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. Stem cell research. June 2004.
- Switzerland. Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics, "First Report on the Activities of the Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics," May 2003. (PDF file)
- Taiwan Department of Health, "Ethical Regulations for Embryonic Stem Cell Research," 2002.
- The United Kingdom Parliament. House of Lords: Stem Cell Research - Report. 13 February 2002. "HFEA grants the first therapeutic cloning licence for research." 11 August 2004.
Map is a Mercator projection that exaggerates the size of areas far from the equator.
Competitiveness and Stem Cell Research Map published by:
Nature Biotechnology, July 2005
Senator Jeff Bingaman and world stem cell map
Global Maps of Human Technological Development
Maps created with GMT software
William Hoffman - firstname.lastname@example.org
Disclaimer: This work is a communications project of William Hoffman, a non-faculty employee of the University of Minnesota, and not the University of Minnesota. It is meant to help inform public discussion of stem cell research and human development.